16th century in literature

Consider the contributions of female authors lớn English literature during the 16th và 17th centuries
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In a tradition of literature remarkable for its exacting & brilliant achievements, the Elizabethan & early Stuart periods have sầu been said lớn represent the most brilliant century of all. (The reign of Elizabeth I began in 1558 and ended with her death in 1603; she was succeeded by the Stuart king James VI of Scotland, who took the title James I of Engl& as well. English literature of his reign as James I, from 1603 lớn 1625, is properly called Jacobean.) These years produced a gallery of authors of genius, some of whom have sầu never been surpassed, & conferred on scores of lesser talents the enviable ability to write with fluency, imagination, and verve. From one point of view, this sudden renaissance looks radiant, confident, heroic—and belated, but all the more dazzling for its belatedness. Yet, from another point of view, this was a time of unusually traumatic strain, in which English society underwent massive disruptions that transformed it on every front và decisively affected the life of every individual. In the brief, intense moment in which England assimilated the European Renaissance, the circumstances that made the assimilation possible were already disintegrating and calling inkhổng lồ question the newly won certainties, as well as the older truths that they were dislodging. This doubleness, of new possibilities and new doubts simultaneously apprehended, gives the literature its unrivaled intensity.

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Social conditions

In this period England’s population doubled; prices rocketed, rents followed, old social loyalties dissolved, & new industrial, agricultural, & commercial veins were first tapped. Real wages hit an all-time low in the 1620s, & social relations were plunged into lớn a state of fluidity from which the merchant and the ambitious lesser gentleman profited at the expense of the aristocrat and the labourer, as satires and comedies current from the 1590s complain. Behind the Elizabethan vogue for pastoral poetry lies the fact of the prosperity of the enclosing sheep farmer, who sought to increase pasture at the expense of the peasantry. Tudor platitudes about order and degree could neither combat nor survive the challenge posed to lớn rank by these arrivistes. The position of the crown, politically dominant yet financially insecure, had always been potentially unstable, và, when Charles I lost the confidence of his greater subjects in the 1640s, his authority crumbled. Meanwhile, the huge body toàn thân of poor fell ever further behind the rich; the pamphlets of Thomas Harman (1566) and Robert Greene (1591–92), as well as Shakespeare’s King Lear (1605–06), provide glimpses of a horrific world of vagabondage & crime, the Elizabethans’ biggest, unsolvable social problem.

Intellectual và religious revolution

The barely disguised social ferment was accompanied by an intellectual revolution, as the medieval synthesis collapsed before the new science, new religion, và new humanism. While modern mechanical technologies were pressed inlớn service by the Stuarts khổng lồ create the scenic wonders of the court masque, the discoveries of astronomers and explorers were redrawing the cosmos in a way that was profoundly disturbing:


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Engraving of the solar system from Nicolaus Copernicus"s De revolutionibus orbium coelestium libri VI, 2nd ed. (1566; “Six Books Concerning the Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs”), the first published illustration of Copernicus"s heliocentric system.

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And freely men confess that this world’s spent, When in the planets, & the firmament They seek so many new…. (John Donne, The First Anniversary, 1611)

The majority of people were more immediately affected by the religious revolutions of the 16th century. A person in early adulthood at the accession of Elizabeth in 1558 would, by her death in 1603, have been vouchsafed an unusually disillusioning insight inlớn the duty owed by private conscience lớn the needs of the state. The Tudor church hierarchy was an instrument of social và political control, yet the mid-century controversies over the faith had already wrecked any easy confidence in the authority of doctrines and forms & had taught people lớn inquire carefully into the rationale of their own beliefs (as John Donne does in his third satire ). The Elizabethan ecclesiastical compromise was the object of continual criticism, from radicals both within (who desired progressive reforms, such as the abolition of bishops) và without (who desired the return of England khổng lồ the Roman Catholic fold), but the incipient liberalism of individuals such as John Milton & the scholar & churchman William Chillingworth was held in kiểm tra by the majority’s unwillingness lớn tolerate a plurality of religions in a supposedly unitary state. Nor was the Calvinist orthodoxy that cradled most English writers comforting, for it told them that they were corrupt, unfree, unable lớn earn their own salvations, and subject lớn heavenly judgments that were arbitrary & absolute. Calvinism deeply affects the world of the Jacobean tragedies, whose heroes are not masters of their fates but victims of divine purposes that are terrifying yet inscrutable.

The race for cultural development

The third complicating factor was the race khổng lồ catch up with Continental developments in arts and philosophy. The Tudors needed khổng lồ create a class of educated diplomats, statesmen, và officials & to dignify their court by making it a fount of cultural as well as political patronage. The new learning, widely disseminated through the Erasmian (after the humanist Desiderius Erasmus) educational programs of such men as John Colet and Sir Thomas Elyot, proposed khổng lồ use a systematic schooling in Latin authors and some Greek to encourage in the social elites a flexibility of mind và civilized serviceableness that would allow enlightened princely government to lớn walk hvà in hand with responsible scholarship. Humanism fostered an intimate familiarity with the classics that was a powerful incentive sầu for the creation of an English literature of answerable dignity. It fostered as well a practical, secular piety that left its impress everywhere on Elizabethan writing. Humanism’s effect, however, was modified by the simultaneous impact of the flourishing Continental cultures, particularly the Italian. Repeatedly, crucial innovations in English letters developed resources originating from Italy—such as the sonnet of Petrarch, the epic of Ludoviteo Arioskhổng lồ, the pastoral of Jacopo Sannazzaro, the canzone, và blank verse—và values imported with these forms were in competition with the humanists’ ethical preoccupations. Social iđơn hàng of wit, many-sidedness, and sprezzatura (accomplishment mixed with unaffectedness) were imbibed from Baldassare Castiglione’s Il cortegiano, translated as The Courtyer by Sir Thomas Hoby in 1561, và Elizabethan court poetry is steeped in Castiglione’s aristocratic Neoplatonism, his notions of universal proportion, và the love sầu of beauty as the path to lớn virtue. Equally significant was the welcome afforded lớn Niccolò Machiavelli, whose lessons were vilified publicly & absorbed in private. The Prince, written in 1513, was unavailable in English until 1640, but as early as the 1580s Gabriel Harvey, a friend of the poet Edmund Spenser, can be found enthusiastically hailing its author as the apostle of modern pragmatism. “We are much beholden to lớn Machiavel và others,” said Francis Banhỏ, “that write what men do, & not what they ought to do.”

So the literary revival occurred in a society rife with tensions, uncertainties, & competing versions of order and authority, religion và status, sex & the self. The Elizabethan settlement was a compromise; the Tudor pretense that the people of Englvà were unified in belief disguised the actual fragmentation of the old consensus under the strain of change. The new scientific knowledge proved both man’s littleness and his power lớn command nature; against the Calvinist idea of man’s helplessness pulled the humanist faith in his dignity, especially that conviction, derived from the reading of Seneca và so characteristic of the period, of man’s constancy & fortitude, his heroic capađô thị for self-determination. It was still possible for Elizabeth khổng lồ hold these divergent tendencies together in a single, heterogeneous culture, but under her successors they would eventually fly apart. The philosophers speaking for the new century would be Francis Babé, who argued for the gradual advancement of science through patient accumulation of experiments, and the skeptic Michel de Montaigne (his Essays translated from the French by John Florio <1603>), who denied that it was possible to lớn formulate any general principles of knowledge.

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Cutting across all of these was the persistence of popular habits of thought & expression. Both humanism & Puritanism phối themselves against vulgar ignorance và folk tradition, but, fortunately, neither could remain aloof for long from the robustness of popular taste. Sir Philip Sidney, in England’s first Neoclassical literary treatise, The Defence of Poesie (written c. 1578–83, published 1595), candidly admitted that “the old song of Percy & Douglas” would move his heart “more than with a trumpet,” & his Arcadia (final version published in 1593) is a representative instance of the fruitful cross-fertilization of genres in this period—the contamination of aristocratic pastoral with popular tale, the lyric with the ballad, comedy with romance, tragedy with satire, và poetry with prose. The language, too, was undergoing a rapid expansion that all classes contributed khổng lồ and benefited from, sophisticated literature borrowing without shame the idioms of colloquial speech. An allusion in Shakespeare’s Macbeth (1606–07) khổng lồ heaven peeping “through the blanket of the dark” would become a “problem” only later, when, for instance, Samuel Johnson complained in 1751 that such words provoked laughter rather than awe. Johnson’s was an age when tragic dignity implied politeness, when it was below the dignity of tragedy khổng lồ mention so lowly an object as a blanket. But the Elizabethans’ ability khổng lồ address themselves to several audiences simultaneously & to bring inkhổng lồ relation opposed experiences, emphases, & worldviews invested their writing with complexity and power.


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