Environmental history in china

From childrens literature to lớn sustainability science, và young scientists for a more sustainable Earth

Centre for Interdisciplinary Social Retìm kiếm, Phenikaa University, Yen Nghia, Ha Dong District, Hanoi 100803, Vietnam

1. Introduction

In a children’s book titled “Trong Rừng Dẻ Gai”<1> (lit. “In the Hazelnut Forest”) written in 1974 by the late Vietnamese writer Nguyen Thi Ngoc Tu (1942-2013), the mystifying forests & natural splendor of the northern province of Quang Ninh were brought khổng lồ life. Despite having been written during the Resistance War against America & about an evacuation destination for many northern Vietnamese at the time, the book opens up a world where people of different ethnic minorities mingled, where the mountains and forests of the country’s northeastern region raged on, và where many threatened species in the Red List of International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) such as tiger and pheasants roamed about (T. N. T. Nguyen, 1974). This is just one in the treasure trove sầu of children’s books published in the 1960s-70s about the grandeur of Vietnamese nature, which includes “Đảo Hoang” (lit. “Deserted Island”) by To Hoai vệ (published in 1969), và “Trúc Rừng Tây Nguyên” (lit. “Wild species of Central Highlands forests”) by Thien Luong (in 1975), etc. Even the Vietnamese children who were born into big cities like Hanoi during that era had grown up with a certain sense of pride about its urban green space as well as the historic Old Quarter, where unique signs of cultural transmission & evolution remain today (Q.-H. Vuong, Bui, et al., 2019).

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Figure 1. The cover of the book “Trong Rừng Dẻ Gai” written in 1974 by the late Vietnamese writer Nguyen Thi Ngoc Tu (1942-2013).


<1> The scientific name of the tree is Fagus sylvatica, và in general, it is often called the European beech or comtháng beech, a deciduous tree belonging to lớn the beech family Fagaceae.

Children’s literature reveals more than what it appears to tell. It is an important—if not indispensable—window through which a generation would come to see different facets of life & human nature. I am fortunate or unfortunate enough khổng lồ be one of those generations. Growing up in the mid-1970s, when the B52 bombing had become the past, my memories are a reflection of the images of a Hanoi where the Franco-Chinese houses (Q.-H. Vuong, Bui, et al., 2019) hid among mỏi the lush greenery of big old trees.

Over the past decades, due lớn rapid urbanization and industrialization, many of the images portrayed in these books—the lustrous forests, the dancing animals, the pristine mountains, and waters—have gradually withered. Recently, I have sầu observed birds increasingly depover on human wastewater lớn quench their thirst. In Figure 2, a sparrow desperately sought drinking water from an air conditioner wastewater pipe. These days-old chicks really could not fly well yet, so they hopped in little steps around the pipe. How did they know khổng lồ go to lớn the pipe? Their parents taught them. A few months ago, I observed their parents drinking from this same pipe. Coming lớn the pipe to lớn relieve sầu their thirst was dangerous for these young wild birds because many children try khổng lồ catch them, and drinkers consider roasted sparrows a delicacy. Also, to lớn reach the water pipe, the birds had lớn avoid many obstacles, including motorbikes.


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Figure 2: A young sparrow drinks from an air conditioner’s wastewater in Hanoi (taken by the author in August 2018).


It is also a pessimistic reminder that Hanoi’s annual rainfall is 1,600mm/year, which means there should be enough water for all animals living in the region (Associated Press, 2018; General Statistics Office, 2018), yet what we see is a stark demonstration of the growing “ecological inequalities.” Deforestation và illegal logging first emerged as a major problem in Vietnam during the 1980s-90s (FAO, 2001). The mismanagement of forests has continued to plague mountainous regions in poverty (McElwee, 2016; Meyfroidt & Lambin, 2008). The beauty of Vietnamese nature, as a generation once knew, is now in danger, & the age-old stories that are worth passing on have sầu become little more than ancient artifacts—to lớn be reminisced of rather than lớn be experienced again.

This picture of Vietphái nam stands in contrast to that of an economic miracle the country is often hailed for. Vietphái nam has successfully shed its war-torn past and food insecurity as one of the world’s poorest lớn becoming a lower middle-income country. Yet, there are costly prices paid for the rapid economic development, and its nature & natural resources are those casualties. As the future of human development increasingly hinges on the need for sustainable education và science, this essay zooms out at the imminent threats khổng lồ humankind and the relevance of achieving the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) khổng lồ science-technology retìm kiếm amuốn today’s young scientists. It also discusses some socio-political & economic aspects of sustainability and concludes with a proposal for developing sustainable science.

2. Planet habitability, SDGs, và sustainability science research

“…that tripod of theoretical cataclysms that have been felt lớn force disturbances deep down in the foundations of the “exact sciences.” The three discoveries appear to lớn deliver us inlớn an unfamiliar world, one so at odds with our previous assumptions và intuitions that, nearly a century on, we are still struggling lớn make out where, exactly, we have sầu landed <…> Godel’s incompleteness theorems. Einstein’s relativity theories. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.”

–– Goldstein (2006) in Incompleteness: The Proof and Paradox of Kurt Gödel.

As philosopher Rebecca Goldstein has rightly observed, it is true that with advances in science, the world is propelled inlớn a time where things are speedier & more uncertain than any period in human history. It has been a little over ten years since the United States National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) launched its Kepler Mission in March 2009 with the purpose of finding potentially habitable planets orbiting other stars lượt thích our Sun (NASA, 2017). The mission, which discovered 2,662 exoplanets during its nine-year service, many of which could be habitable (NASA, 2018), rekindled our hope for evidence of life beyond Earth as well as awakened our collective sầu imagination by turning some of the most far-fetched & abstract notions into identifiable remote destinations (Batalha, 2018). Concrete evidence of an Earth-lượt thích planet has not surfaced despite hundreds of millions of dollars being spent, leaving Earth as the only habitable planet khổng lồ date.

Perhaps, the hope for a habitable planet or the dream khổng lồ colonize Mars comes from the depressing reality that we are currently living. In Collapse, Jared Diamond (Diamond, 2005) suggested that two main causes for the fall of past civilizations are the destructive tendency towards our own kind và the environment. Every day, the truyền thông covers death from terrorist attacks, gun violence, traffic accident, or even death from overwork. Meanwhile, human-made fire, plastic, & waste continue lớn destroy nature và wildlife; the climate has been producing more extreme weather patterns & severe natural disasters. The responses could not become more diametrically opposed: to find it hard not khổng lồ think about the end (Franzen, 2019) or lớn be jaded to a point where climate change becomes a cliché.

Given that we vày not have a viable option of human habitability beyond Earth & that life on Earth is under serious threats, there is an urgent need khổng lồ abide by a course of action to lớn achieve sầu the 17 SDGs (Figure 3). It is clear that the development of science and technology is the underlying critical factor to lớn meeting these goals, from eliminating poverty (SDG1), hunger (SDG2), ensuring good health & well-being (SDG3), building infrastructure (SDG9), & bringing about clean water-sanitation (SDG6) and clean energy (SDG7), khổng lồ name a few. Additionally, SDG4, which outlines the need for inclusive sầu & equitable quality education for all, would lay the ground for science education & research in children and teachers at a global màn chơi. The UNESCO 2019 Forum on Education for Sustainable Development và Global Citizenship, which was hosted by Vietphái nam in July 2019, provides a venue to lớn reflect on the policies & steps toward achieving the SDGs (MDPI, 2019).


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Figure 3. A summary of the 17 SDGs, adopted by all UN Member States in 2015(Source: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdgs)Figure 3. A summary of the 17 SDGs, adopted by all UN Member States in 2015(Source: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdgs)


Much of this is indubitably obvious. The lofty goals presented and discussed numerous times by the media and academia have sầu become nothing more but cliché talking points, making the public over-saturated with topics that ought to be taken seriously in their own rights. Perhaps the more worrying turn is how even policymakers in the world’s leading nation, the United States, have sầu turned to attachồng the scientific community và question the value of scientific retìm kiếm (Tollefson, 2018; Q.-H. Vuong, 2018; Q. H. Vuong, 2020b). In 2017, the administration under US President Donald Trump effectively withdrew from the Paris Agreement on climate change mitigation và later disbanded a government advisory committee for climate science (Tollefson, 2017). In one of the lachạy thử developments that are counter to the scientific spirit, on November 11, 2019, the New York Times reported that the Trump administration had drafted a proposal under which the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) would require scientists to lớn discchiến bại all of their raw data, including confidential medical records, for EPA to validate an academic study’s conclusions (Friedman, 2019). The draft bill threatens to lớn reverse the admissibility of many landmark studies – such as one that proves a links between mercury from power plants & brain impairment (Trasande, Landrigan, và Schechter, 2005) or a correlation between paint dust exposure & children’s behavior disorders (Liu et al., 2014) – because personal data were used and could not be disclosed. These challenges in socio-political & economic terms present considerable barriers to achieving sustainability, not just in science but also for humanity.

3. Light of hope

Not all hopes have been lost, fortunately. There continue to lớn be numerous contributions khổng lồ building & sustaining a better life on Earth by policymakers, scientists, activists, và individuals across continents. If on one side of the planet where the United States no longer champions climate science và sustainability as critical issues, then on the other side, a đô thị in Japan, Kitakyushu, is known for adopting environment-friendly industrial policies since 1967 (Low, 2013). One of our lademo studies on this case examines the impacts of green growth policies on air pollutant reduction and industrial growth in Kitakyushu thành phố, in the belief that there are valuable lessons for developing và developed economies alike (Q.-H. Vuong, Ho, Nguyen, & Nguyen, 2019). Furthermore, our lab’s collaboration with IUCN has resulted in ongoing retìm kiếm about Vietnamese business và their engagement with environmental preservation and protection. By scanning the news on environment và business from Vietnamese news outlets, preliminary findings suggested a high cấp độ of business involvement from manufacturing, logistic, agriculture, and environment industry in environmental-damaging scandals. Besides our own works, other Vietnamese scholars have also explored the relationship between the environment & society. Pioneering works are from senior scholars such as Vo Tong Xuan (Dapice và Xuan, 2012; Pingali và Xuan, 1992; Xuan, 1995), or Tran Duc Vien (Rambo và Tran, 2001; Tran, 2003, 2011), who have sầu researched the social aspects of agriculture và human impact on sustainability.

Some of the aforementioned examples highlight the need to lớn be patient, to maintain scientific integrity và trust in the scientific enterprise, & to lớn reframe our approaches to the multifaceted issues of sustainability. There is indeed light lớn be seen at the end of every scientific inquiry, however improper it may appear. On November 11, 2019, the media reported that a deer-lượt thích animal—the silver-backed chevrotain Tragulus versicolor (Figure 4)—has been found again in the wild in Vietphái nam for the first time in 30 years (M.-T. Ho, 2019; A. Nguyen et al., 2019; Nogrady, 2019). The rediscovery was all the more remarkable because, just when the retìm kiếm team, comprised of many experts at IUcông nhân, had thought finding this species would be unlikely due lớn the lack of documentation or recent detection, they received help from the local people near Nha Trang forests (Nogrady, 2019). With camera traps in the forests, they were able to capture the image of a once lost species, giving many of us Vietnamese for the first time photographic evidence of a cheo cheo, a creature so endearingly drawn on the cover of the 1975 classic book “Thụ Rừng Tây Nguyên” (lit. “Wild species of Central Highlands forests”) (Figure 5). The finding not only confirms the beauty of scientific discovery & collaboration but also ignites hopes for biodiversity conservation today.


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Figure 4. A photo lớn of a Cheo cheo lưng bạc (silver-backed chevrotain Tragulus versicolor) that was recently re-discovered in Vietnam giới (Source: SIE/GWC/Leibniz-IZW/NCNPhường. on Nature at https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-03467-7)


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Figure 5. The cover of the book “Trúc Rừng Tây Nguyên” (lit. “Wild Species of the Central Highlands Forests”) published by Klặng Dong Publishing House in 1975.


Going beyond the academic realm, there are also hopes from the business community. Here are some notable initiatives toward sustainable science và the environment from Vietnam. First, IUCN Vietnam has launched a number of initiatives to lớn support the strategic development of the Vietnam giới Business for Environment (VB4E) (IUcông nhân, 2019). VB4E aims to lớn engage Vietnamese businesses in the process of pursuing sustainable development, which will protect us from the seemingly inevitable fate that Jared Dimond discussed (Diamond, 2005). Our team members are honored khổng lồ tư vấn IUCN in finding a suitable approach for VB4E.

Second, Phenikaa University, Hanoi, & its Phenikaa Innovation Foundation are constantly advocating for a scientific environment that inspires innovation & “responsible creativity.” The term “responsible creativity” was coined by Chairman Dang Le Nguyen Vu of Trung Nguyen Coffee, a leading Vietnamese business in the coffee industry, in his proposal to lớn the ASEAN Secretariat and United Nations Academic Impact in 2012 (Nancy K. Napier, 2012; Nancy K Napier và Vuong, 2013).

4. Youth engagement with scientific research

 “We small guys sleep on narrow beds

Our small dreams crush our little fates.”

–– Che Lan Vien (1960), translated by Nancy K Napier và Vuong (2013).

A sustainable future cannot be without the input đầu vào of the youth. The world has recently heard the voices of climate activists such as Greta Thunberg or Jamie Margolin (Marris, 2019). And in every corner of the world, there are young people who determine khổng lồ leverage their scientific mindmix into building sustainable businesses. There are young scientists who aspire to master the methods and tools of modern science to lớn solve the world’s problems. Indeed, in the constant battle to find solutions to local và global problems, the inputs of young, competent, creative, & idealistic minds are absolutely a resource the world cannot vị without. Young philosophers and researchers such as William MacAskill, Benjamin Todd, and Toby Ord have successfully pushed forward the prime agendas of the effective-altruism movement by founding & running multiple foundations that direct global resources toward a charity that has saved the most lives or help people to lớn choose a career that will maximize their altruistic impacts in the world, or conduct basic retìm kiếm on the questions of global priorities (MacAskill, 2018; MacAskill, Mogensen, & Ord, 2018). Effectively, these young scholars’ works have revolutionized how people think about philanthropy, charity, & career choice. In other words, I would argue, they have sầu nudged people toward a more sustainable way of conceptualizing these traditional activities.

Meanwhile, myopic conceptions of sustainability can cause real damages to the world. For example, one of the influential misconceptions of the concept, especially in business circles, is that sustainable business equals long-term profit. This view has directly translated into the way some businesses had dealternative text with environmental resources; the cases of Hoang Anh Gia Lai (HAGL) or A Cuong Mineral Group (ACM) are the prime examples (Hodal và Kelly, 2013; Linh, 2015; Q.-H. Vuong et al., 2020). There are many reasons for their financial struggles, but mindless deforestation and illegal waste dumping are certainly aao ước the contributing factors. In fact, our recent works have sầu pointed out an urgent need to engage business in solving environmental issues, enhancing biodiversity, & fostering social responsibilities for protecting nature (M.-H. Nguyen và Vuong, 2020; Q.-H. Vuong, Ho et al., 2019; Q.-H. Vuong et al., 2020; Q. H. Vuong, La, Vuong, & Ho, 2020). To vày this, we need a new cultural value that puts healing nature at its core, such as a semiconducting principle that emphasizes a net environmental value in calculating a business’s net profit (Q. H. Vuong, 2020a).

The example of the young philosophers above sầu epitomizes the spirit of academic entrepreneurship (Glassman et al., 2003): being able to create and seize opportunities within an academic setting given limited available resources. This is an important area, often overlooked by both the truyền thông, the academia, and perhaps the young scientists as well. The father of quantum computation, physicist David Deutsch has famously pointed out that people often confuse sustainability with a branch of resource management science, while the true essence of being sustainable is being able lớn solve sầu problems regardless of available resources, which requires the ability lớn innovate, và culture of criticism (Deutsch, 2011). In a recent article on the sustainability of retìm kiếm networks, the authors, following Deutsch (2011), suggest sustaining scientific communities, which are productive sầu and innovative sầu, is the way forward in the constant battle in building a sustainable future (M. T. Ho, Nguyen, Vuong, và Vuong, 2017). Building such scientific communities requires nurturing youth engagement with science và the scientific mindset.

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When young people are properly equipped with a scientific mindmix, with the right entrepreneurial attitude, there is no shortage of problems they can confront khổng lồ move the world inkhổng lồ a more sustainable future. Since 2018, based on the national project of collecting & analyzing data on the scientific productivity of Vietnamese social scientists (Q.-H. Vuong et al., 2018), we have created a scientific communication platsize (https://sc.sshpa.com), the first of its kind in Vietnam giới, where we summarized and introduced publications of Vietnamese scholars worldwide in the Vietnamese language. The hope is that this community can help engage and nurture young minds with big, daring dreams for science and a sustainable future. Nowadays, doing science means one cannot avoid sustainability.

Acknowledgment

This essay evolved from my keynote address for the plenary session of the ASEAN Conference for Young Scientists 2019 organized by the ASEAN Secretariat, Vietnam Ministry of Science and Technology—whose main theme is sustainability science—organized at Hanoi-based Phenikaa University. It has also benefited from my advisory work for the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). I want lớn thank my retìm kiếm team members, namely Nguyen T. Hong Kong, Ho Manh Tung, La Viet Phuong, Nguyen Minh Hoang, Ho Manh Toan, và Vuong Thu Trang. They are the raison d’être of this whole research program, & more importantly, for me, they represent the future of science and the sustainability thereof.

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How To Write A Literature Review (Powerpoint), Writing A Literature Review

<1> The scientific name of the tree is Fagus sylvatica, and in general, it is often called the European beech or comtháng beech, a deciduous tree belonging to lớn the beech family Fagaceae.


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