Literature

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Literature, a toàn thân of written works. The name has traditionally been applied lớn those imaginative works of poetry and prose distinguished by the intentions of their authors & the perceived aesthetic excellence of their execution. Literature may be classified according lớn a variety of systems, including language, national origin, historical period, genre, and subject matter.

For historical treatment of various literatures within geographical regions, see such articles as African literature; African theatre; Oceanic literature; Western literature; Central Asian arts; South Asian arts; và Southeast Asian arts. Some literatures are treated separately by language, by nation, or by special subject (e.g., Arabic literature, Celtic literature, Latin literature, French literature, Japanese literature, and biblical literature).


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Definitions of the word literature tend khổng lồ be circular. The 11th edition of Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary considers literature lớn be “writings having excellence of form or expression and expressing ideas of permanent or universal interest.” The 19th-century critic Walter Pater referred khổng lồ “the matter of imaginative or artistic literature” as a “transcript, not of mere fact, but of fact in its infinitely varied forms.” But such definitions assume that the reader already knows what literature is. And indeed its central meaning, at least, is clear enough. Deriving from the Latin littera, “a letter of the alphabet,” literature is first & foremost humankind’s entire body toàn thân of writing; after that it is the body toàn thân of writing belonging lớn a given language or people; then it is individual pieces of writing.

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But already it is necessary to lớn qualify these statements. To use the word writing when describing literature is itself misleading, for one may speak of “oral literature” or “the literature of preliterate peoples.” The art of literature is not reducible khổng lồ the words on the page; they are there solely because of the craft of writing. As an art, literature might be described as the organization of words to lớn give sầu pleasure. Yet through words literature elevates and transforms experience beyond “mere” pleasure. Literature also functions more broadly in society as a means of both criticizing and affirming cultural values.


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The scope of literature

Literature is a size of human expression. But not everything expressed in words—even when organized and written down—is counted as literature. Those writings that are primarily informative—technical, scholarly, journalistic—would be excluded from the rank of literature by most, though not all, critics. Certain forms of writing, however, are universally regarded as belonging lớn literature as an art. Individual attempts within these forms are said khổng lồ succeed if they possess something called artistic merit and to lớn fail if they vì not. The nature of artistic merit is less easy khổng lồ define than khổng lồ recognize. The writer need not even pursue it to lớn attain it. On the contrary, a scientific exposition might be of great literary value & a pedestrian poem of none at all.

The purest (or, at least, the most intense) literary form is the lyric poem, and after it comes elegiac, epic, dramatic, narrative sầu, and expository verse. Most theories of literary criticism base themselves on an analysis of poetry, because the aesthetic problems of literature are there presented in their simplest và purest form. Poetry that fails as literature is not called poetry at all but verse. Many novels—certainly all the world’s great novels—are literature, but there are thousands that are not so considered. Most great dramas are considered literature (although the Chinese, possessors of one of the world’s greademo dramatic traditions, consider their plays, with few exceptions, to lớn possess no literary merit whatsoever).

The Greeks thought of history as one of the seven arts, inspired by a goddess, the muse Clio. All of the world’s classic surveys of history can st& as noble examples of the art of literature, but most historical works and studies today are not written primarily with literary excellence in mind, though they may possess it, as it were, by accident.

The essay was once written deliberately as a piece of literature: its subject matter was of comparatively minor importance. Today most essays are written as expository, informative journalism, although there are still essayists in the great tradition who think of themselves as artists. Now, as in the past, some of the greademo essayists are critics of literature, drama, và the arts.

Some personal documents (autobiographies, diaries, memoirs, & letters) rank among muốn the world’s greademo literature. Some examples of this biographical literature were written with posterity in mind, others with no thought of their being read by anyone but the writer. Some are in a highly polished literary style; others, couched in a privately evolved language, win their standing as literature because of their cogency, insight, depth, và scope.

Many works of philosophy are classed as literature. The Dialogues of Plakhổng lồ (4th century bc) are written with great narrative skill và in the finest prose; the Meditations of the 2nd-century Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius are a collection of apparently random thoughts, và the Greek in which they are written is eccentric. Yet both are classed as literature, while the speculations of other philosophers, ancient and modern, are not. Certain scientific works endure as literature long after their scientific nội dung has become outdated. This is particularly true of books of natural history, where the element of personal observation is of special importance. An excellent example is Gilbert White’s Natural History & Antiquities of Selbourne (1789).

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Oratory, the art of persuasion, was long considered a great literary art. The oratory of the American Indian, for instance, is famous, while in Classical Greece, Polymnia was the muse sacred to poetry và oratory. Rome’s great orator Cicero was to lớn have sầu a decisive sầu influence on the development of English prose style. Abramê mệt Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address is known lớn every American schoolchild. Today, however, oratory is more usually thought of as a craft than as an art. Most critics would not admit advertising copywriting, purely commercial fiction, or cinema and television scripts as accepted forms of literary expression, although others would hotly dispute their exclusion. The demo in individual cases would seem to lớn be one of enduring satisfaction &, of course, truth. Indeed, it becomes more and more difficult khổng lồ categorize literature, for in modern civilization words are everywhere. Man is subject to a continuous flood of communication. Most of it is fugitive, but here and there—in high-level journalism, in television, in the cinema, in commercial fiction, in westerns và detective sầu stories, & in plain, expository prose—some writing, almost by accident, achieves an aesthetic satisfaction, a depth và relevance that entitle it lớn stand with other examples of the art of literature.


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