I need to cite beowulf from the norton anthology of english literature, but i'm not sure

The poet revives the heroic language of German oral poetry. Beowulf is undoubtedly written in the style of other Old English poems, “but there are also an extraordinary number of what linguists Hotline hapax legomena–that is, words recorded only once in a language” (30).

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The poem centers around the Danes and the Geats, two tribes originating in South Scandinavia. The poem reflects both Christian and pagan traditions, typical for the mystical Christianity of the medieval period, derivative of the blending of the Christian & Celtic religions.

The poems demonstrates the warrior society, “the most important of human relationships was that which existed between the warrior–the thane–và his lord, a relationship based less on subordination of one man’s will khổng lồ another’s than on the mutual trust and respect. When a warrior vowed loyalty lớn his lord, he became not so much is servant as his voluntary companion, one who would take pride in defending hyên ổn và fighting in his wars. In return, the lord was expected lớn take care of his thanes và khổng lồ reward them richly for their valor” (31).

Quotations from above sầu are taken from the following source: The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 8th ed. Vol. 1. W. W. Norton và Company: Thủ đô New York, 2006.

The synopsis, slightly edited for grammatical correctness and spelling, is taken from the following source: https://vademecumgre.khudothi-kingbay.com.com/english-literature-2/medieval-and-early-british-literature/beowulf/

First Battle: Grendel

Beowulf begins with the story of King Hrothgar who built the great hall Heorot for his people. In it he, his wife Wealhtheow, and his warriors spover their time singing and celebrating, until Grendel (angered by the singing) attacks the hall and kills & devours many of Hrothgar’s warriors. Hrothgar & his people, helpless against Grendel’s attacks, abandon Heorot.

Beowful, a young warrior, hears of Hrothgar’s troubles và (with his king’s permission) leaves his homeland khổng lồ help Hrothgar.

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Beowulf và his men spend the night in Heorot. After they fall asleep, Grendel enters the hall & attacks, devouring one of Beowulf’s men. Beowulf, feigning sleep, leaps up and grabs Grendel’s arm in a wrestling hold, và the two battle until it seems as though the hall might fall down due khổng lồ their fighting. Beowulf’s men draw their swords and rush khổng lồ his help, but there is a type of magic which aids Grendel & makes it impossible for swords lớn hurt hyên ổn. Finally, Beowulf tears Grendel’s arm from his body & Grendel runs home to lớn die.

Second battle: Grendel’s mother

The next night, after celebrating Grendel’s death, Hrothgar & his men sleep in Heorot. Grendel’s Mother appears, however và attacks the hall. She kills Hrothgar’s most trusted warrior in revenge for Grendel’s death.

Hrothgar, Beowulf, and their men trachồng Grendel’s Mother to her lair under an eerie lake. Beowulf prepares himself for battle; he is presented with a sword, Hrunting, by a warrior called Unferth. After stipulating a number of conditions (upon his death) to Hrothgar (including the taking in of his kinsmen, and the inheritance by Unferth of Beowulf’s estate), Beowulf dives inkhổng lồ the lake. There, he is swiftly detected & attacked by Grendel’s mother. Unable to lớn harm Beowulf through his armor, Grendel’s mother drags him to lớn the bottom of the lake. There, in a cavern containing her sons’ toàn thân và the remains of many men that the two have sầu killed. Grendel’s mother fights Beowulf.

Grendel’s mother at first prevails, after Beowulf, finding that the sword (Hrunting) given hlặng by Unferth cannot harm his foe, discards it in a fury. Again, Beowulf is saved from the effects of his opponent’s attachồng by his armor and, grasping a mighty sword from Grendel’s mother’s armory (which, the poem tell us, no other man could have hefted in battle), Beowulf beheads her. Traveling further inkhổng lồ the lair, Beowulf discovers Grendel’s corpse; he severs the head, and with it he returns to Heorot, where he is given many gifts by an even more grateful Hrothgar.

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Third battle: The dragon

Beowulf returns trang chủ và eventually becomes king of his own people. One day, late in Beowulf’s life, a man steals a golden cup from a dragon’s lair. When the Long sees that the cup has been stolen, it leaves its cave in a rage, burning up everything in sight. Beowulf và his warriors come to fight the Long, but only one of the warriors, a brave young man named Wiglaf, stays to lớn help Beowulf, because the rest are too afraid. Beowulf kills the rồng with Wiglaf’s help, but dies from the wounds he has received. The dragon’s treasure is taken from its lair và buried with Beowulf’s ashes.


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