Law and literature

Bức hình họa này có tác dụng ta tất cả cảm xúc thiệt ấm áp trong những ngày nóng bức và mờ mịt nhỏng hôm nay. Thêm nữa, nó cũng có tác dụng ta lưu giữ về những người thân của ta mà lại sẽ ra đi trường thọ, những người cơ mà, vào một ngày, mon, năm rõ ràng như thế nào đó vào thừa khđọng, cũng bên ta như vậy này…


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Economic analysis of law applies the tools of microeconomic theory to lớn the analysis of legal rules and institutions. Ronald Coase <1961> và Guido Calabređắm say <1961> are generally identified as the seminal articles but Commons <1924> và Hale <1952> aao ước others had brought economic thinking khổng lồ the study of law in the 1910s and 1920s. Moreover, as I will elaborate below, economic analysis of law derives from several different intellectual traditions in economics.

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Richard Posner <1973> brought economic analysis of law lớn the attention of the general legal academy; by the late 1970s, his work had provoked a vigorous controversy within the legal academy. That controversy has usually defined the debate around the philosophical foundations of economic analysis of law. Posner made two claims: (I) Common law legal rules are, in fact, efficient; và (II) Legal rules ought khổng lồ be efficient. In both claims, “efficient” means maximization of the social willingness-to-pay. In the course of the controversy, two other claims were articulated in Kornhauser <1984, 1985>: (III) Legal processes select for efficient rules; & (IV) individuals respond khổng lồ legal rules economically. (In this third clayên, “efficient” means “Pareto lớn efficient.”) Kornhauser identified this last, behavioral clalặng as central to the enterprise. A fifth clalặng is also implicit in the literature: (V) on the best interpretation of law, comtháng law doctrines promote efficiency.

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<1> Notice that (V) differs from (I) in important respects. According lớn (V), an economic interpretation fits a doctrine not because, as asserted in (I), the legal rules in fact induce efficient behavior but because the rule would induce efficient behavior within the view of the world that seems khổng lồ underlie the judicial decisions. (I) is an empirical clayên that requires the analyst to determine whether the actual behavior induced by legal rules is efficient; it requires knowledge of how individuals bởi, in fact, behave and of which behavior in the real world would, in fact, be efficient. (V) requires only knowledge of the nội dung of judicial opinions; the analyst interprets these opinions khổng lồ extract an economic Mã Sản Phẩm that underlies the decision. (V) might be true even though legal rules induced inefficient behavior in the real world because the announced legal rule might be efficient within the implicit Mã Sản Phẩm used by judges.

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These five sầu claims vì not correspond directly khổng lồ traditional questions in the philosophy of law. The evaluative claim (II) that legal rules ought to be efficient would, if directed khổng lồ judges, qualify as a theory of adjudication, one of the central concerns of anglo-american philosophy of law. Central philosophic questions concerning the concept of law, of its normativity, và the obligation khổng lồ obey the law, however, are not directly addressed. The behavioral clalặng as well as the evolutionary clayên ổn (III) và the positive claim (II), by contrast, concern empirical issues that philosophers of law generally neglect. Nevertheless, the controversy within the legal academy has generally regarded economic analysis of law as providing a comprehensive sầu theory of law that challenges traditional approaches lớn law. Indeed, an explanation of the vehemence of the controversy should identify differences in fundamental views concerning law.

2. The Concept of Law3. The Obligation khổng lồ Obey the Law4. Theories of Adjudication Xem đưa ra tiết…

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