Temple of literature

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The Temple of Literature or Temple of Culture is a Temple of Confuciousin Hanoi -hosting the Imperial Academy, Vietnam"s first national university. The temple was built in 1070 at the time of Emperor. It is one of several temples in Vietnam which is dedicated to Confucious, sages & scholars. The temple is located lớn the south of the Thang Long Imperial Citadel. The various pavilions, halls, statues và stelae of doctors are places where offering ceremonies, study sessions và the strict exams of the Dai Viettook place.

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The temple is featured on the baông xã of the 100,000 VNDbanknote. Just before the Vietnamese New Year celebration Tet, calligraphistswill assemble outside the temple & write wishes in Chinese characters. The art works are given away as gifts or are used as home decorations for special occasions. TheConfucian temple has landscaped courtyards, numerous altars & shrines & an imposing front gate.


History

The temple was built in 1070 & was reconstructed during the Trần dynasty (1225–1400) và in the subsequent dynasties. For nearly two centuries, despite wars and disasters, the temple has preserved ancient architectural styles of many dynasties as well as precious relics. Major restorations have sầu taken place in 1920, 1954 & 2000.

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"In the autumn of the year Canh Tuat, the second year of Than Vu (1070), in the 8th lunar month, during the reign of King Lý Thánh Tông, the Văn Miếu Quốc Tử Giám was built. The statues of Confucius, his four best disciples: Yan Hui (Nhan Uyên), Zengzi (Tăng Sâm), Ziđắm say (Tử Tư), and Mencius (Mạnh Tử), as well as the Duke of Zhou (Chu Công), were carved and 72 other statues of Confucian scholars were painted. Ceremonies were dedicated to lớn them in each of the four seasons. The Crown Princes studied here."

In 1076, Vietnam"s first university, the "Quốc Tử Giám" or Imperial Academy, was established within the temple during the reign of Lý Nhân Tông khổng lồ educate Vietnam"s bureaucrats, nobles, royalty, & other members of the elite. The university remained open from 1076 to 1779. In 1802, the Nguyễn dynasty"s monarchs founded the Huế capital where they established a new imperial academy. The academy at the Hanoi temple lost its prominence and became a school of the Hoài Đức District.

Xem thêm: The Cambridge History Of English And American Literature, 1660

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Under the French protectorate, the Văn Miếu Quốc Tử Giám - Văn Miếu was registered as a Monument historique in 1906. During the period of 1945–1954, the French demolished parts of the temple khổng lồ make room for the siông chồng and wounded since the hospitals were full during times of war. Campaigns of restoration were pursued in 19đôi mươi và 1947 under the responsibility of École française d"Extrême-Orient (French School of the Far East).

Layout và Architecture


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The temple layout is similar khổng lồ that of the templeat Qufu, Shandong, Confucius" birthplace. It covers an area of over 54000 square metres, including the Văn uống lake, Giám park & the interior courtyards which are surrounded by a briông xã wall.In front of the Great Gate are four tall pillars. On either side of the pillars are two stelae commanding horsemen to dismount.

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The gate opens onto three pathways which continues through the complex. The centre path was reserved for the monarch and above sầu the center path there is a big bronze bell, The path to the left is for the administrative Mandarins & the path lớn the right is for military Mandarins. The interior of the site is divided inkhổng lồ five courtyards. The first two courtyards are quiet areas with ancient trees and trimmed lawns, where scholars would relax away from the bustle of the outside world.

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The bell located above the main gate was used lớn signify that an important person was coming through và was added khổng lồ the Quốc Tử Giám in the 19th century. The bell was made out of Bronze and could only be touched by monks. On the bell several patterns can be found including an outline of a phoenix, which represents beauty, and a rồng, which represents power. Both of these symbols are used lớn represent the Emperor and Queen. A bell can be found in all of the pagodas in Vietphái nam.

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The first courtyard - the Dai Tai gate (Đại Tài Môn) và the Thanh Duc gate (Thành Đức Môn)


Chuyên mục: literature